The 15the The Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2022 has been released in which India fell 6 places to rank 107e out of 121 countries with a score of 29.1. The level of hunger in India is described as “serious”.
- In 2021, India ranked 101st out of 116 countries. In 2020, it was placed at 94e
It is an annual peer-reviewed report since 2000 that measures and tracks hunger at global, regional and national levels. It is published jointly by European NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) Concern worldwide and Welthungerhilfe.
- Its goal is to trigger actions to reduce hunger in the world.
Basis of assessment:
I.Each set of GHI scores uses data over a 5-year period. The 2022 GHI scores are calculated using data from 2017 to 2021. The GHI score is calculated by combining the following four indicators:
- Undernourishment: Share of the population whose calorie intake is insufficient.
- Growth retardation in children: The proportion of children under five who are short for their age, reflecting chronic undernutrition.
- Child wasting: The proportion of children under five who are low weight for their height, reflecting acute undernutrition.
- Infant mortality: The proportion of children who die before their fifth birthday, partly reflecting the fatal mix of inadequate nutrition and unhealthy environments
ii.The data used for the indicators comes from various United Nations agencies and other multilateral agencies, including UNICEF, the World Bank, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
iii.The GHI score is calculated on a 100-point scale – zero is the best score (implies no hunger) and 100 is the worst.
iv.For GHI 2022, data was assessed for a total of 136 countries. However, a ranking was given for 121 countries because for 15 countries the individual scores could not be calculated due to lack of data.
2022 GHI ranking:
It should be noted that the 17 countries with 2022 GHI scores below 5 are not assigned individual rankings. They are collectively ranked from 1 to 17. These 17 countries are:
- Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chile, China, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Turkey and Uruguay.
- Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, the Central African Republic and Yemen are the countries ranked at the bottom of the index.
I.The overall GHI 2022 score is 18.2 compared to 19.1 in 2014, and is still considered “moderate”. World hunger is expected to worsen in 2023 and beyond.
ii.Some 828 million people suffered from undernourishment worldwide in 2021.
iii.The highest levels of hunger were found in Africa south of the Sahara and South Asia.
iv.According to the index, there are 44 countries that currently have “serious” or “alarming” levels of hunger.
v.Climate change is the main obstacle to achieving the Zero Hunger goal.
Regional scenario: Asia
I.South Asia is the region with the highest level of hunger in the worldto the highest infant stunting rate and highest rate of childhood wasting in the world.
ii.India, Pakistan and Afghanistan each have child stunting rates between 35 and 38%, with Afghanistan’s rate being the highest in the region.
I.In Asia, Afghanistan with a rank of 109 is the only country behind India.
ii.India’s neighboring countries score as follows: Pakistan (99), Bangladesh (84), Nepal (81) and Sri Lanka (64).
iii.India’s performance in all four indicators:
- Child wasting: The child wasting rate in India is 19.3%, worse than the levels recorded in 2014 (15.1%) and even in 2000 (17.15%). It is the highest of any country in the world.
- Undernourishment: The prevalence of undernourishment also increased from 14.6% in 2018-2020 to 16.3% in 2019-2021. This implies that 224.3 million (%) people in India are considered undernourished.
- Stunting and infant mortality: India showed improvement in stunting and infant mortality. Child stunting in India fell from 38.7% in 2012-16 to 35.5% in 2017-21 and infant mortality from 4.6% in 2014 to 3.3% in 2020.
iv.This decline in stunting and infant mortality indicators is mainly due to improved coverage of health and nutrition interventions, household conditions and maternal factors.
- The Indian states of Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Odisha and Tamil Nadu showed considerable improvement between 2006 and 2016.
Recent Related News:
I.The University of Hyderabad (UoH) at Telangana, an Institution of Eminence (IoE), was ranked first among Indian universities and 16th among all academic institutions in India in institutions ranked by research results in the university sector in the Nature Index 2022 ranking.
ii.Razorpay Software Private Limited, India’s leading comprehensive payment and banking services platform for businesses in India, has become the first Indian company to feature in the Forbes Cloud 100 2022 list of the world’s top 100 private cloud companies.
Static: India’s initiatives to eradicate hunger/malnutrition:
PM Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PM-GKAY), Eat Right India Movement, POSHAN (Prime Minister’s Overarching Scheme for Holistic Nutrition) Abhiyan, Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana, Food Fortification, National Food Security Act, 2013, Mission Indradhanush, Integrated Child Development Service Program (ICDS)